The massive Capital One data breach that compromised the personal information of 100 million credit card customers and applicants serves as a stark reminder that misconfigurations and malicious insiders can defeat the most well-intentioned cyber defenses, even when companies rely on a third-party cloud service to securely manage their data.

In the case of Capital One, Seattle-area woman Paige Thompson stands accused of leveraging a misconfigured web application firewall last March to access the finance company's files, hosted on Amazon Web Services S3 servers.

The storage buckets contained data that Americans and Canadians filled out on their credit card application forms, including names, addresses, zip/postal codes, phone numbers, email addresses, birth dates and self-reported income. Other compromised data included credit scores, credit limits, balances, payment histories, contact information, fragments of transaction data and, in a small subset of cases, Social Security numbers, linked bank account numbers and social insurance numbers.

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