Cybersecurity collaboration between the industry and government has been lacking, with National Cyber Director Chris Inglis noting that such partnership had not been discussed "very well" and Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency Director Jen Easterly saying that the term had not been tackled when she began serving in the government, CyberScoop reports. However, Easterly noted that the creation of the Joint Cyber Defense Collaborative last August has helped foster increased cooperation between the government, cybersecurity industry, researchers, and international partners, which was particularly evident during the emergence of the widespread Log4j vulnerability. Moreover, while lawmakers and other experts have criticized the fragmentation of federal cybersecurity, Inglis said that the diversity offered by the national cyber director, the deputy national security adviser for cyber and emerging technology, Cyber Command, National Security Agency, and CISA has been a strength. "Look at the U.S. Department of Defense. It boggles the mind why you have all of those kinds of line items. Yet when it enters the field of battle and essentially achieves what are called joint operations," Inglis added.