Both Russia and Ukraine have launched intensive cyber warfare campaigns since the invasion began, with Switzerland-based non-governmental organization Cyber Peace Institute flagging almost 450 attacks from either side since February, according to SecurityWeek. However, such covert operations have not yet had a profound impact on critical infrastructure, according to cybersecurity experts. "Large-scale cyberattacks have indeed occurred, but it's generally agreed that they have clearly failed to produce the 'shock and awe' effect some predicted," said University of Quebec researcher Alexis Rapin, who added that devastating cyberattacks are "very difficult" to synchronize with military warfare due to the extended time needed to prepare them. Assistance from the U.S., Europe, and other Ukrainian allies may have also helped the country to defend its systems. "Russia has been under constant cyber assault over the last few months from an international coalition of volunteer, non-governmental hacking organizations, the most prominent being the 'Anonymous' movement... Russia simply underestimated Ukraine's cyber resilience, in the same way that it underestimated the country's armed forces," said Jacques Delors Institute researcher Arnault Barchetta.