CISOs and cybersecurity teams around the world are watching their threat surface multiply as millions of staffers find themselves working from home for the first time in order to help constrain the spread of Coronavirus.
The removal of these people from the safe and controlled working environment found in their offices and tossing them into the wild, so to speak, means a greater dependence on VPNs, which may prove problematical as most large enterprises are not prepared to host the majority of their workforce online, and smaller companies may not be set up at all for this type of access.
Then there is the additional threat posed by workers operating outside the direct oversight of IT and security teams possibly making catastrophic decisions that could endanger the entire organization.
Stan Lowe, global CISO for Zscaler, noted that most businesses have enough VPN hardware to generally handle between 20 percent and 30 percent of their workforce working remotely. However, now that entire corporations have been forced to send their employees home with their laptops this is proving not to be anywhere near enough.
It is also no simple nor inexpensive matter to go out and purchase additional equipment, at least the type needed by larger firms that require a high degree of security, Lowe said. Zscaler is a provider of a cloud-based, remote access software.
“If you need more equipment, it takes time—you have to buy it, wait for it to ship and arrive then deploy it, update the hardware and keep it updated. And that’s just the VPN stack. Trying to scale VPNs and other legacy remote access technology, adding tens of thousands of users, can take months and break a corporate network,” he said, adding three to five months is a good guesstimate for such an upgrade.
For those companies that cannot increase their VPN capacity it might become necessary to put their workers onto shifts so the VPN capability that is on hand is spread out, Lowe said.
Even companies well-equipped to handle an influx in VPN usage face the daunting task of bringing those who normally occupy office space up to speed on how to use their VPN and make sure their home network can handle the added bandwidth.
“IT must be sure to educate their users, so they are aware of the impact on everyone and to limit their bandwidth-heavy activity, like Netflix streaming, to outside of office hours. This will ensure that productivity doesn’t drop and that users don’t try to forgo the VPN altogether, which could have dire consequences for the security of the business,” said Justin Jett, director of audit and compliance for Plixer.
Another unique situation that needs to be addressed, Jett said, is that not only are employees at home, but so is the rest of their family. A person attempting to do work at the kitchen table is competing with their spouse who is working from the den and their kids who may be gaming or streaming video in another room. All of these demands need to be balanced so work can get done, perhaps requiring the kiddies to limit themselves to board games during the day and steaming when office hours are over.
Then there is the cybersecurity aspect of this new reality. Using a VPN does not by itself make working from home more secure. Lowe pointed out that with people linking in from all over the world, possibly through an insecure router, a company’s attack surface is vastly increased. Even those with a safe connection can cause problems as cybercriminals are working overtime right now to come up with new phishing lures designed to grab login credentials from all the individuals who are now telecommuting full time.
“A VPN only secures the communication channel between the employee's workstation and the corporate network. However, as a massive amount of home workers now start to use their personal workstations to access corporate assets, it's only a matter of time until we see a soaring number of cyberattacks that originate from these personal devices that can be easily breached,” said Tal Zamir, co-founder and CTO of Hysolate.
If just one person makes a mistake a malicious actor could gain the information needed to access a corporate network. Placing even more pressure on the individual is the fact that there is nobody from the company’s IT department or security team within earshot to ask if an email is malicious or legit.
“If devices are infected with malware, even workers who use a VPN client cannot evade attackers who can ride their VPN connection to raise havoc in enterprise networks. The more users are working from home, the greater the risk. Organizations should instruct employees to use trusted dedicated workstations to access sensitive corporate assets and avoid using their multi-purpose personal devices,” Tamir said.
A VPN breach is about as bad as you can get, the ability for someone to travel internally from VPN infrastructure into sensitive data is extremely easy, said Aaron Zander, Head of IT at HackerOne.
Companies able to add VPN capacity are not safe but must takes several extra measures to ensure errors are not made in their haste to deploy the new hardware.
“Triple check all of your network configurations, ACL’s, firewall rules, etc. Without a doubt in 9 months from now, we’ll be looking at news stories about two impacts resulting from COVID-19 --- all the babies being born, and all the breaches that have happened because of negligent infrastructure,” Zader said.